3D Comparison of Mandibular Response to Functional Appliances: Balters Bionator versus Sander Bite Jumping
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Aim. To assess the three-dimensional (3D) maxillomandibular and dental response to Balters Bionator (BB) and the Sander Bite Jumping Appliance (SBJA) in growing patients. Materials and Methods. Twenty-seven Class II division 1 patients (13 males, 14 females), consecutively treated with either the BB (9 females, 7 males; 10.1 ± 1.6 years) or SBJA (5 females, 6 males; 11 ± 1.9 years), were collected from a single orthodontic practice. All patients presented overjet ≥5 mm, full Class II or end-to-end molar relationship, mandibular retrusion. CBCT scans were available at T1 and after removal of the functional appliances (T2) with a mean interval of 18 months. The 3D location and direction of skeletal and dental changes with growth and treatment were quantitatively assessed. Statistical analysis was performed by means of Mann-Whitney U test (p < 0.05). Results. Patients treated with the SBJA and BB orthopedic appliances presented, respectively, 4.7 mm and 4.5 mm of 3D displacement of the chin, with marked ramus growth of, respectively, 3.7 mm and 2.3 mm. While the mandible and maxilla grew downward and forward, no opening of the mandible plane was observed. Both appliances adequately controlled labial inclination of lower incisors (1.3° and 0.3°, for the SBJA and BB groups, resp.). No significant between-group differences were found for the T2-T1 changes for any of the variables, with the exception of molar displacements (significantly greater in the SBJA group than in the BB group, 1.2 mm and 0.9 mm, resp.). Conclusions. The maxillomandibular and dental growth responses to BB and SBJA therapies are characterized by vertical ramus growth and elongation of mandible that improve the maxillomandibular relationship with adequate control of lower incisor position.