Chronic alcohol consumption changes blood marker profile and bone density in rats with apical periodontitis
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Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate apical periodontitis (AP) development in rats under a chronic alcohol diet by calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase blood levels in addition to histological and radiographic analyses. Methods Thirty-two rats were arranged into four groups: (a) group 1: without apical periodontitis and on a regular diet; (b) group 2: AP and on a regular diet; (c) group 3: alcoholic diet without apical periodontitis; and (d) group 4: alcoholic diet and apical periodontitis. Alcoholic solution at 20% was given throughout the 8-week experiment. AP was induced in the first molars at the end of the 7th week. At the end, the animals were anesthetized for blood collection, followed by euthanasia, and jaws were removed for digital radiography and histological processing. The level of significance was 5%. Results Calcium levels remained constant in all groups (P > 0.05). Group 4 showed a higher phosphorous level than group 2 (P < 0.05). The alkaline phosphatase activity was higher in group 3 compared with group 1 (P < 0.05). Three animals in group 4 exhibited a severe inflammatory reaction, whereas the animals in group 2 did not demonstrate any reaction (P < 0.05). The lowest value of radiographic density was given by group 4 (P < 0.05). Conclusions Chronic alcohol consumption increased serum phosphorus and decreased bone density in the periapical region, favoring AP development.
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