Optimal Restoration of Active Distribution Systems With Voltage Control and Closed-Loop Operation
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This paper presents a new mixed-integer second-order cone programming model for solving the restoration problem in active distribution systems considering the optimal control of distributed generators (DGs), voltage regulators (VRs), on-load tap changers (OLTCs), and capacitor banks (CBs). In contrast to most of the works found in the literature, temporary loops may be formed in the network during the restorative operation state. This operating condition allows restoring the service to more loads. In this way, the objective function of the problem minimizes (i) the total load not supplied, (ii) the number of switching operations, (iii) the changes in the statuses of the voltage control devices and in the dispatch of the DGs, and (iv) the number of basic loops formed in the system. Several tests are carried out using a 53-node system for single-fault and multiple-fault scenarios. The results obtained with the proposed approach outperform the solutions achieved when only radial configurations are allowed in the problem. Moreover, it is also verified that the voltage control allows for more efficient restoration schemes.