Hormesis in plants: Physiological and biochemical responses
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Hormesis is a favorable response to low level exposures to substance or to adverse conditions. This phenomenon has become a target to achieve greater crop productivity. This review aimed to address the physiological mechanisms for the induction of hormesis in plants. Some herbicides present a hormetic dose response. Among them, those with active ingredients glyphosate, 2,4-D and paraquat. The application of glyphosate as a hormesis promoter is therefore showing promess. Glyphosate has prominent role in shikimic acid pathway, decreasing lignin synthesis resulting in improved growth and productivity of several crops. Further studies are still needed to estimate optimal doses for other herbicides of crops or agricultural interest. Biostimulants are also important, since they promote effects on secondary metabolic pathways and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). When ROS are produced, hydrogen peroxide act as a signaling molecule that promote cell walls malleability allowing inward water transport causing cell expansion. Plants'ability to overcome several abiotic stress conditions is desirable to avoid losses in crop productivity and economic losses. This review compiles information on how hormesis in plants can be used to achieve new production levels.
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