Titanium-Based Alloy Surface Modification with TiO2and Poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) Multilayers for Dental Implants
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Implant placement is an important repair method in dentistry and orthopedics. Increasing efforts have focused on optimizing the biocompatibility and osseointegration properties of titanium (Ti) and Ti-based alloys. In this work, Ti-based alloys were modified by the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique, which is a simple and versatile method for surface modification. The morphology and chemical structure of LbL films of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and Ti dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were first characterized employing ultraviolet-visible and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopies as well as atomic force microscopy for further application in Ti-based alloy implants. The changes provoked by the LbL PSS/TiO2 film on the Ti-based alloy surfaces were then investigated by scanning electron microscopy and micro-Raman techniques. Finally, in vivo tests (immunolabeling and biomechanical analysis) performed with screw implants in rats suggested that PSS/TiO2 multilayers promote changes in both topography and chemical surface properties of the screw, providing beneficial effects for osteoblast activity. This simple and relatively low-cost growth process can open up possibilities to improve dental implants and, probably, bone implants in general.
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