Association of hyaluronic acid with a deproteinized bovine graft improves bone repair and increases bone formation in critical-size bone defects
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Background: This study is designed to evaluate the potential of different formulations of hyaluronic acid (HA) to improve new bone formation in critical-size calvaria defect (CSD) when combined with a deproteinized bovine graft (DBG) material. Methods: Thirty male rats were used. A 5-mm-diameter CSD was created and three experimental groups (n = 10) were randomly assigned based on the treatments performed. Group DBG: CSD filled with a DBG; group DBG/LV: CSD filled by the combination of DBG and HA in a low-viscosity crosslinking agent; group DBG/HV: CSD filled by the combination of DBG and HA in a high-viscosity crosslinking agent. Animals were euthanized 30 days postoperatively. Histological, histometric (percentage of newly formed bone [PNFB], percentage of remaining graft particles, histochemical, and immunohistochemical (bone morphogenetic protein 2/4 [BMP2/4], osteocalcin [OCN], and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase [TRAP]) analyses were performed. Results: The highest PNFB was observed in DBG/HV when compared with the other groups (P ≤0.05). DBG/LV and DBG/HV presented almost no inflammatory cells. In contrast, inflammation was observed in group DBG. Extensive resorption of graft particles was observed in group DBG, which was not present in DBG/LV and DBG/HV as confirmed by the larger size of the particles (P ≤0.05). BMP2/4 and OCN immunolabeling were higher in DBG/HV when compared with group DBG (P ≤0.05). Increased number of TRAP-positive cells was observed in DBG/LV and DBG/HV (P ≤0.05). Lower percentage of mature collagen fibers was observed in DBG/HV (P ≤0.05). Conclusion: The combination of HA in a high-viscosity crosslinking agent with DBG improves the bone repair process and increases the amount of newly formed bone towards CSDs in rat calvaria.
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