Photobiomodulation Therapy Improves Postoperative Pain and Edema in Third Molar Surgeries: A Randomized, Comparative, Double-Blind, and Prospective Clinical Trial
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Purpose: Laser light has biological effects that can modulate inflammatory processes. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy on pain, edema, and trismus after the extraction of retained third molars. Methods: A split-mouth, double-blind, randomized clinical trial (RCT) was conducted in 13 patients with similar bilateral third molars who received intraoral application PBM therapy at 4 points with a diode laser at 810 nm wavelength, 6 J (100 mW, 60 seconds/point) on 1 side (the PBM side); and laser irradiation simulation on the other side (SHAM side). The pain was assessed through visual analog scale (VAS) at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours, number of analgesic-relief (NAR), and mean time of first analgesic use; edema, through VAS, and linear facial measurements at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours; and trismus, through the mouth opening measurements at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours. The repeated-measures analysis was applied to assess the effect of the treatment, followed by Tukey's post hoc test for multiple comparisons (P <.05). Results: Thirteen patients (61.77% male and 38.63% female) with age of 24.16 ± 2.06 participated in this research. VAS showed that PBM controlled pain better (7.56 ± 6.25) than SHAM (32.25 ± 22.78) at 24 hours (P <.001) and 48 hours (19.47 ± 9.27 and 39.87 ± 4.21, respectively) (P =.011). VAS also showed that PBM controlled edema better (19.7 ± 13.27) than SHAM (32.38 ± 15.28) at 24 hours (P =.037) and 48 hours (19.47 ± 13.11 and 39.87 ± 22.77, respectively) (P =.002). Conclusion: The PBM therapy in this study resulted in pain and edema reduction after third molar surgery and may be considered as adjuvant therapy after the surgical procedure.
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