Role of teeth adjacent to implants installed immediately into extraction sockets: an experimental study in the dog
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Aim: To evaluate the influence of the presence of both adjacent teeth on the level of alveolar bony crest at sites where implants were installed into the socket immediately after tooth extraction.Material and methods: Six Labrador dogs were used. Extractions of all teeth from the second premolar to the first molar were performed in the right side of the mandible, after full-thickness flap elevation. In the left side of the mandible, an endodontic treatment of the mesial root of the third and fourth premolars was performed. Full-thickness flaps were elevated, the teeth hemisected, and the distal roots removed. Immediately after, implants were bilaterally installed with the margin flush to the buccal bony crest. The implants were placed in the center of the alveolus at the third premolars and toward the lingual bony plate of the alveolus at the fourth premolars. After 3 months of healing, the animals were euthanized.Results: All implants were integrated in mature bone. More bone resorption was observed at the test compared to the control sites. At the buccal aspect, a resorption of 2.8 +/- 0.5 and 1.6 +/- 0.4 mm at the third premolars and of 2.4 +/- 0.6 and 0.8 +/- 0.7 mm at the fourth premolars were found, at the test and control sites, respectively. At the lingual aspect, the bony crest was apically located in relation to the implant shoulder 1.5 +/- 0.3 and 0.5 +/- 0.5 mm at the third premolars and 1.6 +/- 0.6 and 0.3 +/- 1.1 mm at the fourth premolars, at the test and control sites, respectively. A lower buccal bone resorption was found at the control implants placed lingually.Conclusion: Multiple extractions of teeth adjacent to a socket into which implants were installed immediately after, tooth extraction induced more alveolar bone recession compared to sites where the adjacent teeth were preserved. Moreover, an implant placed more lingually yielded less recession of the buccal aspect of the implant.