Bone reformation and implant integration following maxillary sinus membrane elevation: An experimental study in primates
MetadataShow full item record
Background: Recent clinical studies have described maxillary sinus floor augmentation by simply elevating the maxillary sinus membrane without the use of adjunctive grafting materials. Purpose: This experimental study aimed at comparing the histologic outcomes of sinus membrane elevation and simultaneous placement of implants with and without adjunctive autogenous bone grafts. The purpose was also to investigate the role played by the implant surface in osseointegration under such circumstances. Materials and Methods: Four tufted capuchin primates had all upper premolars and the first molar extracted bilaterally. Four months later, the animals underwent maxillary sinus membrane elevation surgery using a replaceable bone window technique. The schneiderian membrane was kept elevated by insertion of two implants (turned and oxidized, Brånemark System®, Nobel Biocare AB, Göteborg, Sweden) in both sinuses. The right sinus was left with no additional treatment, whereas the left sinus was filled with autogenous bone graft. Implant stability was assessed through resonance frequency analysis (Osstell™, Integration Diagnostics AB, Göteborg, Sweden) at installation and at sacrifice. The pattern of bone formation in the experimental sites and related to the different implant surfaces was investigated using fluorochromes. The animals were sacrificed 6 months after the maxillary sinus floor augmentation procedure for histology and histomorphometry (bone-implant contact, bone area in threads, and bone area in rectangle). Results: The results showed no differences between membrane-elevated and grafted sites regarding implant stability, bone-implant contacts, and bone area within and outside implant threads. The oxidized implants exhibited improved integration compared with turned ones as higher values of bone-implant contact and bone area within threads were observed. Conclusions: The amount of augmented bone tissue in the maxillary sinus after sinus membrane elevation with or without adjunctive autogenous bone grafts does not differ after 6 months of healing. New bone is frequently deposited in contact with the schneiderian membrane in coagulum-alone sites, indicating the osteoinductive potential of the membrane. Oxidized implants show a stronger bone tissue response than turned implants in sinus floor augmentation procedures. © 2006 Blackwell Publishing, Inc.