Dietary, anthropometric, and biochemical determinants of uric acid in free-living adults
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Background: High plasma uric acid (UA) is a prerequisite for gout and is also associated with the metabolic syndrome and its components and consequently risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the management of UA serum concentrations would be essential for the treatment and/or prevention of human diseases and, to that end, it is necessary to know what the main factors that control the uricemia increase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the main factors associated with higher uricemia values analyzing diet, body composition and biochemical markers. Methods. 415 both gender individuals aged 21 to 82 years who participated in a lifestyle modification project were studied. Anthropometric evaluation consisted of weight and height measurements with later BMI estimation. Waist circumference was also measured. The muscle mass (Muscle Mass Index - MMI) and fat percentage were measured by bioimpedance. Dietary intake was estimated by 24-hour recalls with later quantification of the servings on the Brazilian food pyramid and the Healthy Eating Index. Uric acid, glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, urea, creatinine, gamma-GT, albumin and calcium and HDL-c were quantified in serum by the dry-chemistry method. LDL-c was estimated by the Friedewald equation and ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) by the immunochemiluminiscence method. Statistical analysis was performed by the SAS software package, version 9.1. Linear regression (odds ratio) was performed with a 95% confidence interval (CI) in order to observe the odds ratio for presenting UA above the last quartile (♂UA > 6.5 mg/dL and ♀ UA > 5 mg/dL). The level of significance adopted was lower than 5%. Results: Individuals with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m§ssup§2§esup§ OR = 2.28(1.13-4.6) and lower MMI OR = 13.4 (5.21-34.56) showed greater chances of high UA levels even after all adjustments (gender, age, CRP, gamma-gt, LDL, creatinine, urea, albumin, HDL-c, TG, arterial hypertension and glucose). As regards biochemical markers, higher triglycerides OR = 2.76 (1.55-4.90), US-CRP OR = 2.77 (1.07-7.21) and urea OR = 2.53 (1.19-5.41) were associated with greater chances of high UA (adjusted for gender, age, BMI, waist circumference, MMI, glomerular filtration rate, and MS). No association was found between diet and UA. Conclusions: The main factors associated with UA increase were altered BMI (overweight and obesity), muscle hypotrophy (MMI), higher levels of urea, triglycerides, and CRP. No dietary components were found among uricemia predictors. © 2013 de Oliveira et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
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