Structural Properties Induced by the Composition of Biocompatible Phospholipid-Based Microemulsion and Amphotericin B Association
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Anionic microemulsions (MEs) containing soya phosphatidylcholine, Tween-20, sodium oleate as surfactant, and cholesterol as oil phase were investigated as drug carriers for amphotericin B. Depending on the composition of the microemulsion, various structures, which differently interact with amphotericin B, can be formed. The nanostructured systems were characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy, rheological behavior, and polarized light microscopy. The results reveal that the droplet diameters increased with amphotericin B incorporation for all ranges of surfactant and oil phase. For both amphotericin B-unloaded and amphotericin B-loaded microemulsions, the profile of the oil droplet diameter decreased with increasing the surfactant concentration, demonstrating the stabilizing effect of the surfactant. The increase in the oil phase proportions led to the growth of the droplet diameter, clearly demonstrating the limit of the surfactant organization in the oil-water interface. The amphotericim B incorporation into microemulsion increased with the fraction volume of the oil phase and the surfactant concentration reaching a plateau at high contents. This profile could be quantitatively analyzed by the framework of the pseudo-phase model that considers the amphotericim B distribution between the oil and the aqueous phases. The rheological analysis showed a pseudoplastic behavior with little thixotropic characteristic. Under polarized light, the system of interest showed a dark background characteristic of dispersed droplets. However, for both amphotericim B-loaded and amphotericim B unloaded microemulsions, the increase in the O/S ratio led to the formation of ordered structures with lamellar arrangements.
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