Pomegranate Extract Potentiates the Anti-Demineralizing, Anti-Biofilm, and Anti-Inflammatory Actions of Non-Alcoholic Mouthwash When Associated with Sodium-Fluoride Trimetaphosphate


This study investigated the anti-caries and anti-inflammatory effects of mouthwash formulations containing Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel extract (PPE), sodium-trimetaphosphate, and low concentrations of fluoride. PPE was characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography (ellagic acid and punicalagin). Total phenolics were quantified among formulations, and their stability was analyzed for 28 days. The formulation effects were evaluated as follows: (1) inorganic component concentration and reduced demineralization on bovine enamel blocks subjected to pH cycling; (2) anti-biofilm effect on dual-biofilms of Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 treated for 1 and 10 min, respectively; and (3) cytotoxicity and production of inflammatory mediators (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha). The formulation containing 3% PPE, 0.3% sodium-trimetaphosphate, and 225 ppm of fluoride resulted in a 34.5% surface hardness loss; a 13% (treated for 1 min) and 36% (treated for 10 min) biofilm reduction in S. mutans; a 26% (1 min) and 36% (10 min) biofilm reduction in C. albicans; absence of cytotoxicity; and anti-inflammatory activity confirmed by decreased interleukin-6 production in mouse macrophages. Thus, our results provide a promising prospect for the development of an alcohol-free commercial dental product with the health benefits of P. granatum that have been recognized for a millennium.



anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, dental enamel, fluoride, polyphosphates, Punica granatum

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Antibiotics, v. 11, n. 11, 2022.