Teeth with acute apical abscess vs. teeth with chronic apical periodontitis: a quantitative and qualitative proteomic analysis

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2023-02-01

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Objective: To quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the proteomic profile of teeth with acute apical abscesses (AAA) compared with teeth with chronic apical periodontitis (CAP) and to correlate the expression of detected human proteins with their main biological functions. Materials and methods: Samples were obtained from root canals of 9 patients diagnosed with AAA and 9 with CAP. Samples were analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Label-free quantitative proteomic analysis was performed by Protein Lynx Global Service software. Differences in protein expression were calculated using the t-test (p < 0.05). Results: In total, 246 human proteins were identified from all samples. Proteins exclusively found in the AAA group were mainly associated with the immunoinflammatory response and oxidative stress response. In the quantitative analysis, 17 proteins were upregulated (p < 0.05) in the AAA group, including alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, hemopexin, fibrinogen gamma chain, and immunoglobulin. Additionally, 61 proteins were downregulated (p < 0.05), comprising cathepsin G, moesin, gelsolin, and transketolase. Most of the proteins were from the extracellular matrix, cytoplasm, and nucleus. Conclusions: The common proteins between the groups were mainly associated with the immune response at both expression levels. Upregulated proteins mostly belonged to the acute-phase proteins, while the downregulated proteins were associated with DNA/RNA regulation and repair, and structural function. Clinical relevance: The host response is directly related to the development of apical abscesses. Thus, understanding the behavior of human proteins against the endodontic pathogens involved in this condition might contribute to the study of new approaches related to the treatment of this disease.

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Clinical Oral Investigations, v. 27, n. 2, p. 591-601, 2023.

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