First Baseline of Circulating Genotypic Lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Patients from the Brazilian Borders with Argentina and Paraguay
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Background: At the triple border Brazil/Paraguay/Argentina there is easy mobility from one city to another for economic and tourism activities. This constant and fast population mobility is mainly to visit Iguazu Falls, in the Iguazu River, on the border of the Brazilian state of Parana and the Argentina. As the incidence of tuberculosis is high in this setting, our study aimed to establish a first baseline of circulating genotypic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.Methodology/Principal Findings: This study included 120 patients from 10 cities in southwestern Parana, Brazil with pulmonary symptoms, from July 2009 to July 2011. Information about sex, age, clinical features and address was collected by reviewing the national tuberculosis notification database. Of these, 96 (80%) isolates were identified as M. tuberculosis and 22 (22.9%) were drug resistant (20, 20.8% INH mono-resistant and 2, 2.1% multidrug-resistant). All isolates were subjected to genotyping by Spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing. The distribution of the isolates analyzed by spoligotyping revealed 30 distinct patterns. The four mainly detected clades were Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM), ill-defined T, Haarlem (H) and S. The MIRU-VNTR showed 85 distinct patterns. Spoligotyping combined to MIRU-VNTR allowed 90 distinct patterns.Conclusions/Significance: Our study demonstrated that there is significant molecular diversity in circulating M. tuberculosis, with predominance of the LAM and T clades in cities of southwestern Parana, Brazil, bordering Argentina and Paraguay.