In vitro assessment of the cytotoxic, apoptotic, and mutagenic potentials of Isatin
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Isatin (1H-indole-2,3-dione) is a chemical found in various medicinal plant species and responsible for a broad spectrum of pharmacological and biological properties that may be beneficial to human health, as an anticonvulsant, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and anticancer agent. The aim of the present study was to determine in vitro the cytotoxic, mutagenic, and apoptotic effects of isatin on CHO-K1 and HeLa cells using the MTT viability assay (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide), micronucleus (MN) test, apoptosis index, and nuclear division index (NDI). The 5 isatin concentrations evaluated in the mutagenicity and apoptosis tests were 0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 50 μM, selected through a preliminary MTT assay. Positive (doxorubicin, DXR) and negative (phosphate buffered saline, PBS) control groups were also included in the analysis. Isatin did not exert a mutagenic effect on CHO-K1 after 3 and 24 h of treatment or on HeLa cells after 24 h. However, 10 and 50 μM concentrations inhibited cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis in both CHO-K1 and HeLa cells. Data indicate that the cytotoxic, apoptotic, and antiproliferative effects of isatin were concentration independent and cell line independent. The authors thank Profa Dra Eiko Nakagawa Itano for the use the spectrophotometer and the Conselho Nacional para o Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico for master's scholarships to P. M. Cândido-Bacani and grants to T. R. Calvo, W. Vilegas, E. A. Varanda and I. M. S. Cólus. The Conselho Nacional para o Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico provided funding for this study. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.